### 如何使用標點符號

1. 沒有標點符號難以了解的例句：
(a) After eating the child left the table 乍看起來，好像是：「吃完那小孩以後…」。有了標點符號之後的句子是：After eating, the child left the table. 「吃完之後，那小孩離開了餐桌」。
(b) Inside the dog was growling乍看起來，好像是：「那隻狗的肚子裡在咆哮」。有了標點符號之後的句子是：Inside, the dog was growling. 「門裡面，那隻狗在咆哮」。
(c) What do you think I mend for nothing and give you two dollars乍看起來，好像是：「我免費給你補(鞋)之外，還要送你兩塊錢，你以為如何？」。有了標點符號之後的句子是： What! do you think I mend for nothing and give you two dollars?「什麼！你以為我免費給你補(鞋)之外，還給你兩塊錢嗎？」

2. 增減標點符號的例句：
(a)Happily he died. 他含笑而終。本句中happily修飾died.
Happily, he died. 真高興，他死了。本句中happily修飾 he died.
(b) No tax will be imposed on foreign fruit trees.

No tax will be imposed on foreign fruit, trees.

(c) Dr. Johnson, our family doctor cannot come today.

(d) Dr. Johnson, our family doctor, cannot come today.

l.Apostrophe 上標點(') 2.Comma 逗號(,) 3.Colon 冒號(:) 4.Dash 破折號(—)5.Exclamation Point 驚嘆號(!) 6.Hyphen 連字號(-) 7.Parentheses 括號( ) 8.Period 句號(．) 9.Question Mark 問號(?) lO.Quotation Marks 引號("…") 11.Semicolon 分號(;) l2.Triple Dots 刪節號(…)

l. 上標點(')
(2)表示數字的省略。Today is Thursday, June 1, '89.
(3)表示字母的複數。There are five s’s in “sleeplessness.”
(4)表示單字的複數。Our teacher told us not to use so many so’s.
(5)表示數字的複數。Her 7’s and 9’s look alike.
(6)表示所有格。It’s Vice Burn’s umbrella.

2. 逗號(，)
(1) 用在以and ,but ,for, nor ,or ,so ,yet等連接詞連接的兩個主要子句之間。 My father is fond of fishing, but my mother prefers hiking.
(2) 在複合句中，如果附屬子句在前，主要子句在後，用在附屬子句之後。
While I was making a telephone call, someone knocked at my door．

(3) 用以分開非限制形容詞子句與主要子句。
Her father, who is a famous scholar, teaches English.
(4) 用以分開非限制同位語。
Kent Howard, my English teacher, is from America.
(5) 用在yes, no ,well等字之後。
(a) Yes, he is a hard-working student.
(b) No, it is impossible.
(c) Well, you may go if you insist.
(6) 向人說話時，用在對方名字或稱謂之後，之前或前後。
(a) John, come here.
(b) Open the door, John.
(c) It is, Sir, not my fault.
(7) 用以分開引用句
(a) “You are beautiful,” he said.
(b) Our teacher said, “Freedom is not license.”
(c) “No,” she said, “I was just testing your patience.”
(8) 用以分開星期，月日，年份。
On Sunday, May 28, 1989, her first child was born.
(9) 用以分開地名、省名、國名、街道名、巷弄名等。
Candy lives at 4 Alley 10, Lane 76, Ching Hua Street, Section 4, Taipei, Taiwan.
(10)用以分開一系列的單字，片語或子句。
(a) Her mother sells tomatoes, potatoes, and peaches.
(b) She ran up the stairs, across the porch, and into the house.
(c) We all agreed that she was beautiful, that she was intelligent, and that she was ambitious.
(11)用以表示字的省略。
The lion is the symbol of courage; the lamb, of meekness. (the lamb is the symbol of meekness).
(12)用在such as及especially的前面。
(a) They enjoy outdoor sports, such as hiking and riding.
(b)He likes all extracurricular activities, especially basketball playing.
(13)用以分開「乃此非彼」的結構。
He wanted to see Cliff, not Steve.
(14)用在追問句之前。
It is warm today, isn’t it?

3. 冒號(：)(1) 用在解釋或逐項列舉之前(在as follows, the following as these或given below之後)。
(a) I bought the following articles: sheets, towels, and blankets．
(b) The table lamp consists of three parts: a stand, a bulb, and a shade.
(2) 用在正式或事務信函中稱謂之後。
Dear Sir: Dear Mr. Reagan: Gentlemen:

Dear Mary, Dear John,
(3) 用在數字之後，表示時間。
Our class starts at 8:10 a.m. and ends at 12:00 noon.
(4) 用在較長的引用句或正式問句之前。
(a) This is my favorite quotation: “It is difficult to say what is impossible, for the dream of yesterday is the hope of today and reality of tomorrow.”
(b) The question is: What can we do for our country?
(5) 用在講釋第一個主要子句的第二個主要句子之前。
Her intention is obvious: she wants to marry him.

4. 破折號(--)(1) 表示猶豫，句意的暫時中斷, 或思想的突然中斷。
(a) I—I don’t know. You’d better ask her.
(b) The entire teaching facilities—console, tapes, earphones, and tape recorders—were stolen last night.
(c) I’ll give—let’s see, what can I give?
(2) 用以強調同位語。
She has only one interest—food.
(3) 用在結語之前。
Professor Chu collects postage stamps, coins, sea shells, matchboxes—in short,
anything that interests him.
(4) 用在未完成句之後。She said, “He was everything to me, but--”

5. 驚嘆號(！) (1) 用在以強烈情感說出的字句之後。
(a) What a surprise!
(b) How beautiful a girl she is!
(c) What a beautiful girl she is!
(2) 用在祈使句之後。
(a) Help! My house is on fire!
(b) Be quiet!

6. 連字句(-) (1) 用以表示分數或連接由21至99中的十位數及個位數。
(a) Three-fourths of the freshman students are girls.
(b) There are twenty-two boy student and ninety-eight girl students in the Department of English.
(2) 用在行末連接分寫的單字。
He is a graduate student of National Chengchi Uni- versity.
(3) 用以連接複合字中的各字。
We had a heart-to-heart talk last night.

7. 括號( )用來在句中附加評論或解釋。
I saw the two students (they are lovers) kissing each other.

8. 句號( . )
(1) 用在敘述句，祈使句及禮貌問句之後。
(a) I wish to enter an ideal university.
(c) Will you please send me a copy of your university catalogue.
(2) 用在間接問句之後。
She asked if you would come to her birthday party.
(3) 用在縮寫名字和其他字的第一個字母之後，或縮寫字之後。
(a) Prof. W. W. Wang has returned to Taipei. (如果不用名字，則要用 Professor Wang.)
(b) Dr. Tang earned his Ph. D. degree from Georgetown University in Washington, D. C. (District of Columbia).

9. 問號(？)
(1) 用在直接問句之後。
Do you find English writing difficult?
(2) 用在括號中表示存疑。
Chaucer was born in 1340(?) and died in 1400.

10. 引號(“ ”)
(1) 用在引用句的前後。 (a) Our teacher said, “All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.”
(b) “I don’t like her, ” she explained, “because she is far too proud.”
(2) 如果引用句本身是敘述句而且位在一個問句之後，必須先用引號，再用問號。
Did he say, “I am going to college next year”?

Did he say, “Are you going to college next year?”
(3) 引用文句有兩段或兩段以上時，只在每一段開始時和最後一段結束時用引號。
“Mom and Dad did not come home with them because Sunday was parents’ day off; the boys did the housework and cooked the meal of the week, while Father and Mother stayed on for church service.
“But by the time diner was ready the boy had climbed into bed. The shoe had to be cut off his swollen and discolored leg. Why on earth hadn’t he told somebody? Go quick and fetch the doctor!”
(4) 引用句中另有引用句時, 用單引號表示
She said, “ I quite agree to the saying ‘To love and to be loved is the greatest happiness on earth’.”

11. 分號 (；)
(1) 用以連接兩個或兩個以上的主要子句。
(a) The singular form is mouse; the plural form is mice.
(b) she made up her mind; she laid her plans; she began her trip.
(2) 用在連接兩個主要子句的連接副詞 (consequently, however, moreover, nevertheless, so, still, then, therefore, thus, etc.)之前。
He did not pass the examination; therefore, he was unhappy.
(3) 用在連接兩個主要子句的連接詞 (and, but, or, nor, for)之前，當主要子句本身有逗號時。
Henry, a freshman, lives at home; but Karl, his brother, does not.

12. 刪節號 (…)

In his essay LUCK Winston Churchill wrote: “The longer one lives, the more one realizes that everything depends upon chance… a man’s own contribution to his life story is continually by an external superior power.”

HOW TO USE ENGLISH PUNCTUATION CORRECTLY

1. End your sentences with a period (full stop), question mark, or exclamation point (exclamation mark or shout mark).
1-1 Use the period (full stop) to denote a full stop at the end of a statement.
The period ( . ) is one of the most commonly used punctuation marks.

The accessibility of the computer has increased tremendously over
the past several years.

1-2 The question mark ( ? ), used at the end of a sentence, suggests an
interrogatory remark or inquiry.

What has humanity done about the growing concern of
global warming?

1-3 The exclamation point (exclamation mark, shout mark)( ! )
suggests excitement or emphasis in a sentence.

I can't believe how difficult the exam was!

2. Use the semicolon and colon properly.
o The semicolon ( ; ) has a few uses.
§ Use a semicolon to separate two related but independent clauses. Note that, if the two clauses are very wordy or complex, it is better to use a period instead.
§ People continue to worry about the future; our failure to conserve resources has put the world at risk.
§ Use a semicolon to separate a complex series of items, especially those that contain commas.
§ I went to the show with Jake, my close friend; his friend, Jane; and her best friend, Jenna.
o The colon ( : ) has multiple uses.
§ Use the colon to introduce a list. Be careful not to use a colon when denoting a regular series. Usually, the word following suggests the use of a colon. Use only after a full sentence which ends in a noun.
§ The professor has given me three options: to retake the exam, to accept the extra credit assignment, or to fail the class.
§ INCORRECT - The Easter basket contained: Easter eggs, chocolate rabbits, and other candy.
3. Understand the differences between a hyphen and a dash.
o The hyphen ( - ) was once a common punctuation mark on typewriters, when a long word might have been split between two lines. The hyphen is still used in a number of other areas:
§ Use a hyphen when adding a prefix to some words. The purpose of this hyphen is to make the word easier to read. If you were to leave the hyphen out of a word like re-examine, it would be reexamine, which would be harder to read. Understand that some words do not require a hyphen to separate the prefix from the word, such as restate, pretest, and undo. Let a dictionary be your guide for when to use the hyphen after a prefix.
When you use a hyphen, the two words have to rely on each other. Example: re-arrange.
§ Cara is his ex-girlfriend.
§ Use hyphens when creating compound words from separate words.
§ The up-to-date newspaper reporters were quick to jump on the latest scandal.
§ Use a hyphen when writing numbers out as words. Separate the two words of any number under one hundred with a hyphen.
§ There are fifty-two playing cards in a deck. ("The amount is one hundred and eighty" is a common error in US English, where the "and" is usually omitted. Elsewhere in the English-speaking world, however, the "and" is usually included.)
§ Be careful with spelling out numbers above one hundred—if the number is used as an adjective, it is completely hyphenated, since all compound adjectives are hyphenated (I have one-hundred tapes). Otherwise, a hyphen should only occur if a number greater than 100 occurs within the larger number, e.g., He lived to be one hundred twenty-one.
o The dash ( -- or — ) should be used when making a brief interruption within a statement, a sudden change of thought, an additional comment, or a dramatic qualification. It can also be used to add a parenthetical statement, such as for further clarification, but should still be relevant to the sentence. Otherwise, use parentheses. Keep in mind that the rest of the sentence should still flow naturally. Try to remove the statement within the dash from the sentence; if the sentence appears disjointed or does not make sense, then you may need to revise. There should be spaces before and after the dash in British English.
§ An introductory clause is a brief phrase that comes—yes, you guessed it—at the beginning of a sentence.
§ This is the end of our sentence—or so we thought.
4. Use the double quotation mark and single quotation mark/apostrophe for different purposes.
o The double quotation ( " ) encloses a direct quotation, whether made by a person or taken from a piece of literature.
§ "I can't wait to see him perform!" John exclaimed.
§ According to the article, the value of the dollar in developing nations is "strongly influenced by its aesthetic value, rather than its face value."
o The single quotation mark or apostrophe ( ' ) has a variety of uses.
§ Use the apostrophe together with the letter s to indicate possession. Be aware of the difference in using an apostrophe with singular or plural nouns. A singular noun will use 's, whereas the plural version of that singular noun will use s'. Also, be mindful of nouns that are always considered to be plural, such as children and people — here, you should use 's. Be aware of pronouns that are already possessive and do not require apostrophes, such as hers and its (it's is used only for the contractions of it is and it has). Their is possessive without apostrophe or s, except as a predicate adjective, where it becomes theirs.
§ The hamster's water tube needs to be refilled.
§ A singular noun with possession.
§ In the pet store, the hamsters' bedding needed to be changed.
§ A pluralized singular noun with possession.
§ These children's test scores are the highest in the nation.
§ A plural noun with possession.
§ Use the apostrophe to combine two words to make a contraction. For example, cannot becomes can't, you are becomes you're, and they have becomes they've.
§ Use the single quotation mark within a regular quotation to indicate a quotation within a quotation.
§ Ali said, "Anna told me, 'I wasn't sure if you wanted to come!'"
§ Note that an apostrophe is not used with 's' to make a plural noun from a singular. This is a very common mistake and should be avoided.
§ CORRECT - apple → apples
§ INCORRECT - apple → apple's
5. Indicate a break or pause within a sentence with the comma ( , ). This is another commonly used punctuation mark. There are several instances where you might use a comma:
o Use the comma when denoting an appositive, or a break within a sentence that supplements and adds information to the subject.
§ Bill Gates, CEO of Microsoft, is the developer of the operating system known as Windows.
o Use the comma when denoting a series. This is a set of three or more "list" items within a sentence. To save space in newspapers, some writers may omit the last comma.
§ The fruit basket contained apples, bananas, and oranges.
§ The computer store was filled with video games, computer hardware and other electronic paraphernalia.
o Use a comma if your subject has two or more adjectives describing it. This is somewhat similar to a series, except that it is incorrect to place a comma after the final adjective.
§ CORRECT - The powerful, resonating sound caught our attention.
§ INCORRECT - The powerful, resonating, sound caught our attention.
o Use a comma when referring to a city and state. It is also necessary to use a comma to separate the city and state from the rest of the sentence.
§ I am originally from Freehold, NJ.
§ Los Angeles, CA, is one of the largest cities in the United States.
o Use a comma to separate an introductory phrase (which is usually one or more prepositional phrases) from the rest of the sentence. An introductory phrase briefly introduces the sentence, but is not part of the sentence's subject or predicate, and it therefore should be separated from the main clause by a comma.
§ After the show, John and I went out to dinner.
§ On the back of my couch, my cat's claws have slowly been carving a large hole.
o Use the comma to separate two independent clauses. Having two independent clauses in a sentence simply means that you can split the sentence into two. If your sentence contains two independent clauses that are separated by a conjunction (such as and, as, but, for, nor, so, or yet ), place a comma before the conjunction.
§ Ryan went to the beach yesterday, but he forgot his sunscreen.
§ Water bills usually rise during the summer, as people are thirstier during hot and humid days.
o Use a comma when making a direct address. When calling one's attention by name, separate the person's name and the rest of the statement with a comma. Note that this kind of comma is used rarely in writing, because this is something that we do normally while speaking.
§ Amber, could you come here for a moment?
o Use a comma to separate direct quotations. A comma should come after the last word before a quotation that is being introduced. It is not necessary to use a comma in an indirect quote. A comma is usually not necessary if you are not quoting an entire statement.
§ While I was at his house, John asked me if I wanted anything to eat.
§ An indirect quotation that does not require a comma.
§ While I was at his house, John asked, "Do you want anything to eat?"
§ A direct quotation.
§ According to the client, the lawyer was "lazy and incompetent."
§ A partial direct quotation that does not require a comma.
6. Understand the difference between parentheses, brackets, and braces.
o Use parentheses ( ( ) ) to clarify, to place an afterthought, or to add a personal comment. Be sure to include the period after the closing parenthesis.
§ Steve Case (AOL's former CEO) resigned from the Time-Warner board of directors in 2005.
§ Used for clarification. Here, commas can replace the parentheses.
§ You will need a flashlight for the camping trip (don't forget the batteries!).
§ An afterthought. Note that the period (full stop) follows the last parentheses — not before the first. Also note that replacing the parentheses with a comma may not be entirely suitable here, and is better off with a period or a semicolon.
§ Most grammarians believe that parentheses and commas are always interchangeable (I disagree).
§ A personal comment.
o Use brackets ( [ ] ) to signify an editor's note in a regular piece of writing. You can also use brackets to clarify or to revise a direct quote so that it appeals to your own writing. Brackets are often used to encompass the word "sic" (Latin for thus), suggesting that the previous word or phrase was written "as is", with the error intended to be displayed.
§ "[The blast] was absolutely devastating," said Susan Smith, a local bystander at the scene of the incident.
§ "It was absolutely devastating!" – the actual quote by Susan Smith.
o Braces ( { } ) are most widely used in denoting a numeric set in mathematics. Though generally uncommon, braces can also be used in regular writing to indicate a set of equal, independent choices.
§ { 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 }
§ Choose your favorite utensil { fork, knife, spoon } and bring it to me.
7. Know how to use the slash ( / ).
o Use the slash to separate "and" and "or", when appropriate. The phrase "and/or" suggests that a series of options are not mutually exclusive.