連接詞分三種: coordinating conjunctions 對等連接詞 、subordinating conjunctions 從屬連 接詞 、 conjunctive adverb 連接詞副詞.
(1) Coordinating Conjunctions 對等連接詞
For Compound Sentences :連接兩個獨立子句
這類只有七個, 記住的方法是 "Fanboys." - For, And, Nor, But, Or , Yet , So
要怎麼樣分辨它們呢? 看它在句子裡的位置. 對等連接詞不能放在句首或句尾, 只可以待在中間, 有時候它的前面會加逗號. 你只要想著對等連接詞很乖, 不隨便從中間跑掉.
(2 ) Subordinating Conjunctions 從屬連接詞
For Complex Sentences : 使附屬子句與主要子句之間建立關係
這類有蠻多個, 想背可以, 但很累....
although, while, though, even if, whereas, because, since, as, so that, in that, in order that, if, unless, provided that, before, since, until, after, as soon as..........etc.
附屬連接詞可以做開頭, 放句子中間, 但不能放在句尾.
Because xxxx, xxxxxx
xxxxxx because xxxxx
(3) Conjunctive Adverb 連接詞副詞
moreover, further,additionally, also, furthermore, however, on the other hand,
neverhteless, alternaticely, therefore, thus, hence, consequently.......etc.
連接詞副詞放那裡都可以, 不能用它來連接句子---就是說, 當它在句子中間的時候, 它的前面要加分號而不是逗號.
xxxxxxx ; however, xxxxx
(1) 主要子句 + 從屬連接詞+從屬子句 I was happy when I heard the news.
(2) 從屬連接詞+從屬子句 , 主要子句 When I heard the news, I was happy.
＊「當…的時候/期間」= at the time that.. / during the time that
I was happy when I heard the news. = When I heard the news, I was happy.
I put on my jacket when I feel cold.
I visited many museums when I was in England.
He was taking a shower when the telephone rang.
I will tell him the truth when he comes here tomorrow. (X when he will come ..)
When seeing the police, the thief ran away at once. (when是介係詞)
= When the thief saw the police, he ran away at once. (when是從屬連接詞)
＊「當…時」= during the time that…
I will think it over while I am having my lunch.
While I was studying, I fell asleep.
I was watching TV while my wife was cooking.
While ( I was) in London, I visited the British Museum.
Strike while the iron is hot. (【諺】打鐵趁熱)
＊ when 與 while的比較
when+瞬間動作或持續動作 / while+持續動作
情境說明：Tom read a novel from 1:00 to 3:00 yesterday. During the time, some things happened. The door bell rang at 1:30. Mary got home at 2:00.
The door bell rang while / when Tom was reading a novel.
= While/When Tom was reading a novel, the door bell rang.
= Tom was reading a novel when the door bell rang.
= When the door bell rang, Tom was reading a novel.
Mary got home when/when Tom was reading a novel.
= Tom was reading a novel when Mary got home.
(X)While he heard the bad news, he almost fainted. (while不能接瞬間動作)
(O)When he heard the bad news, he almost fainted.
＊as=when / as=while
When / While / As he was a child, he lived in the country.
When / While / As they were talking, it began to rain.
When / As he was leaving the park, he heard a noise under the bush.
While he is good at tennis, he is bad at swimming. （雖然）
He is fat, while his son is thin. （然而）
＊「直到…才…」主要子句的動作為瞬間動作come, go, finish, start… ，需用否定句，即： not…until…
I couldn’t go home until I finished my homework. (我直到完成作業才能回家。)
I didn’t go to bed until (it was) twelve o’clock. (我直到十二點才睡覺。)
I won’t leave until it stops raining. (我會等到雨停才離開。)
Until you told me, I had no idea of it.(直到你告訴我，我才知道這件事。)
I will stay here until he comes back. (我會留在這裡直到他回來。)
I waited for him until the store closed. (我等他等到商店關門。)
＊until = till
I didn’t know it until he came back. = I didn’t know it before he came back.
= It was not until he came back that I knew it.
= Not until he came back did I know it.
= Only when he came back did I know it.
after / before
Every day I eat breakfast, and then I go to school.
After I eat breakfast, I go to school.
= I go to school after I eat breakfast.
= Before I go to school, I eat breakfast.
= I eat breakfast before I go to school.
I will tell you the truth after I finish this work. (X will finish)
What will you do before you go back home? (Xwill go)
＊after/before + Ving 從屬子句的主詞與主要子句的主詞相同時，則可去掉主詞並將動詞改為Ving，此時的after或before則成為介係詞
After I graduate from college, I will work in my father’s company.
After graduating from college, I will work in my father’s company.
Be sure to wash your hands before eating. ( = before you eat)
＊right after…. (就在…之後) / soon after…(…之後馬上…)
He died right after the accident happened.
I’m sorry to learn that you started to smoke soon after you got to America.
＊by the time = before
By the time you get there, it will be dark.
I will have finish cleaning the house by the time Mother gets home.
＊not…long before…(…不久就…) / …long before…(過了一段時間才…)
It was not long before I saw my mistake. (不久我就看到我的錯誤了。)
I didn’t wait long before she appeared. (我等了不久她就出現了。)
I was long before he came. (過了一段時間才他才來。)
(1) 現在完成式 since + 過去式的句子
She has studied English since she was five years old.
I haven’t see her since she went to the USA.
(2) It is 一段時間 since …. = It has been ~ since…(自從…已經~了)
It is a year since he returned. = It has been a year since he returned.
Three years have passed since he wrote to me last.
= It is three years since he wrote to me last.
Since he won’t help me, I have to do it myself.
Since there is no bus there, we have to walk.
as soon as
As soon as he saw his mother, he cried out.
He jumped as soon as he heard the good news.
Once you saw her, you will find what I say is true.
Once you understand this rule, you will have no more difficulty.
= As soon as you understand this rule, you will have no more difficulty.
= If you once understand this rule, you will have no more difficulty.
Every time he comes here, he will bring a lot of fruit to us.
We can’t play basketball outside because it is raining now.
Because he made a big mistake, he was punished by our teacher.
(X) Because it is raining, so we can’t play basketball outside.
(O) Because it is raining, we can’t play basketball outside.
(O) It is raining, so we can’t play basketball outside.
I did not go because I was afraid. (not修飾go, “我沒有去，因為我害怕。”)
I did not go because I was afraid. (not修飾because子句，”我並不因為害怕才去。”)
He did not come because he wanted to see me.
He can not go to school because he is sick.
We should not study English just because it is a school subject.
I did not go, because I was afraid. (我沒去，因為我害怕。)
＊The reason (why) is …. that….
She decided not to go because she had no money.
The reason (why) she decided not to go was that she had no money.
＊not because…but because…(不是因為…而是因為…) = not that…but that…
I eat vegetables not because I like them but because they are good for the health.
Not that I love Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more.
--- Shakespear, Julius Caesar
＊because + 子句 / because of + 名詞
I didn’t go because it rained. = I didn’t go because of rain.
so that / in order that
I will put it on the wall so that everybody may look at it.
He studies hard in order that he can pass the exam.
＊只有in order that 可放句首
In order that we could understand what he said, he spoke very slowly.
＊ in order to (= to) + VR / for + 名詞
Betty got up early in order to catch the early train.
= To catch the early train, Betty got up early.
= Betty got up early for the early train.
The box was so heavy that I couldn’t move it.
The girl is so lovely that everyone likes her.
He spoke so fast that I couldn’t understand what he said.
We were in such a hurry that we made so many mistakes.
He is such a fool that he believes everything his girlfriend tells him.
＊『a單數名詞+形容詞』 such + a + adj. + n. + that …
so + adj. + a + n. + that…
She is such a good girl that everyone likes her.
She is so good a girl that everyone likes her.
＊『複數/不可數名詞+形容詞』 such + adj. + n. + that …
They are such smart boys that they know how solve all the problems.
He can speak such good English that he has more opportunities than
＊『複數/不可數名詞+many/much/few/little』 so + many/much/few/little + n. + that …
There are so many cars that the policeman has trouble controlling the
I have so much homework today that I can’t finish it in an hour.
I am so happy that all of you can come to my party.
He worked very hard, so that he became rich in a very short time.
It rained hard so that I didn’t have to water the flowers.
＊so that 可引導表目的的句子；也可引導表結果的句子。
He spoke clearly, so that everyone could heard. [表結果]
He spoke clearly, so that everyone could heard. [表目的]
If it is fine tomorrow, we will go on a picnic.
We will go camping if it doesn’t rain tomorrow.
＊if還可以作when / whenever解釋
If he comes, I will tell him truth. = When he comes, I will tell him the truth.
If he wants money, he asks for his mother. = Whenever he wants money, he…
＊if only 「只要」
I will let you go if only you can finish your work in an hour.
If you only read this book carefully, you will know more about the writer.
I told him he could pass the exam only if he studied hard.
Only if it is nice outside can we have the picnic.
as long as / so long as
I will lend you my bicycle as long as you can lend me your computer.
As long as he comes here on time, we can have the meeting.
The baby will never cry unless he is hungry.
You will not pass the exam unless you study hard.
＊「一旦」= if you… ; as soon as
Once you hear the story, you will never forget it.
Once you understand the tips, you will have no more difficulty.
Where there is no fire, there is no smoke.(【諺】無風不起浪)
Where there is a will, there is a way.(【諺】有志者事竟成)
Where there is no rain, there is no farming.
although / though
Although he doesn’t like his job, he still has to do it.
Although I have known him for ten years, I have never been to his home.
(X)Although I am tired now, but I still have to work.
(O)Although I am tired now, I still have to work.
=I am tired now, but I still have to work.
Although I believe it, yet I will not act now.
Although he is poor, he still lives happily.
even if / even though
Even if he is often absent, his grades are still excellent.
We will still go camping even if it rains tomorrow.
If it rains tomorrow, we will not go camping.
= If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will go camping.
Even if it rains tomorrow, we will go camping.
= Whether it rains tomorrow or not, we will go camping.
Whether you like it or not, you will have to do it.
The game will start on time whether he comes or not.
＊whether A or B, … A與B為相反詞
I will go whether it rains or shines.
Whether we win or lose, we are going to do our best.
Whether you go or stay, you must pay the bill.
＊與名詞子句「是否whether or not」比較
I don’t know whether he will come or not. [名詞子句，保留原時態]
(我不知道是否他會來。) ( or not可以省略 )
I will do it whether he comes or not. [從屬連接詞，現在式代替未來式]
(無論他來到與否，我仍將做這件事。) ( or not不可以省略
no matter +疑問詞 = 疑問詞-ever
No matter who (= Whoever) comes, he will be welcome. (無論誰來都受歡迎。)
No matter what (=Whatever) you do, do it well. (無論你做什麼，都要好好地去做。)
No matter where you live, you cannot be happy without a friend.
No matter when my mother goes shopping, she takes me with her, and makes me carry all she buys.