倒 裝 句
索引 : ( 複合句 : 複雜句 : 動詞在句首的倒裝 ) ( 受詞置於句首 : 補語在句首 : 分詞 : 直接敘述法 )
(1) 疑問句，(2)祈願句， (3) 為強調， 訊息焦點，引起注意，或為使句子的 意義清晰等等理由，
而形成的倒裝句。 疑問句和祈願句前面已談過在此不再多述。本文重點放在第 (3)項。大部分句子的
倒裝要領和 yes - no 疑問句的形成方法一樣，只差句尾沒有問號。也就是 (1)有 be動詞 時，則將 be 動詞
移至主詞之前。(2) 有助動詞時則將其置於主詞之前，無助動詞時則加 do, does,或 did。閱讀時，如看到
(1) 強調否定的副詞放在句首 ：下列是一些此類的否定詞 ,通常用在正式的文體。 few, little, hardly,
scarcely, seldom, never, none, nobody, nothing, nowhere, no sooner, not until, not at all, not for a moment,
in no way, on no account, by no means, under no circumstances (決不) ( ..... no ..... 的片語)
It is seldom wise to neglect one's own health. → Seldom is it wise to neglect one's own health.
I shall never forget your kindness to me. → Never shall I forget your kindness to me.
I did not find I had left my key in the office until I got home.
→ Not until I got home did I find I had left my key in the office.
There has never been a time when the need of honesty was so emphasized as today.
→ Never has there been a time when the need of honesty was so emphasized as today.
The teacher had no sooner entered the classroom than the students all calmed down.
→ No sooner had the teacher entered the classroom than the students all calmed down.
The teacher had hardly / scarcely entered the classroom when / before the students all calmed down.
→ Hardly / Scarcely had the teacher entered the classroom when / before the students all calmed down.
Nowhere could the boy find his lost dog.
Little did he dream that he should won the first prize.
Not only did it thunder but it also poured last night.
By no means is your performance in study satisfactory. ( Your performance in study is by no means satisfactory.)
On no account are you to go playing without finishing your homework first.
(2) Only + adverb (phrase or clause) : 常見於正式的体裁中。
Only in the night is an owl active in chasing the game. (獵物)
Only in this way can you solve the problem you have met now.
Only when one loses one's health, does one realize its importance.
Only in the exhibition in Tainan county have we seen such a splendid orchid .
(3) 地方 / 方位 副詞，和感嘆句的倒裝 : 地方 / 方位副詞置句首而後面的是不及物動詞 時常用倒裝，
不用 do 或 did 於主詞之前， 常出現於文學和描述文章。
Under a tree were sitting three old farmers of the village.
Beside the desk / Behind the counter stood a tall man with silver hair.
From Taiwan come a lot of the most beautiful orchids.
From within the house floated the tender melody of music.
Off went Steve! Off he went ! Back came the girls! Back they came!
Down fell the big tall tree! Away flew the birds! Away they flew!
Here comes the bus! (= Here it comes!) Here you are. (主詞是名詞要倒裝，代名詞則不倒裝)
Here is the pen that you are looking for.
※ 在 Practical English Usage by Michael Swan 一書中對感嘆句有如下的敘述。
Hasn't she grown! (= She has grown a lot!) Wasn't it a great match! (真是一場好比賽)
Isn't it cold! (好冷)
Am I hungry! ( 我好餓阿) Am I fed up! (我真煩死了) Did he look annoyed! (他看起來好煩的樣子)
(c) 在舊式文學中，how 和 what 後面的感嘆句偶而也用感嘆句。
How beautiful are the flowers! What a peaceful place is Mount Ali!
In his hand he / the boy held a bottle of water.
Behind him he felt the gunfire becoming fiercer and fiercer.
From the top of the hill we had a full view of the beautiful village.
Into one of the poor families was born a boy who was named Parker.
On the white wall was printed a red shape of a hand.
※大學文法與修辭 ，計湘全著 在 p. 292 對 here 和 there 用法說明與一般的說法寬鬆可供參考。
以 here 為句首而主詞是名詞時，則要倒裝。主詞是代名詞時，則倒裝與不倒裝皆可。
因此 " Here he comes." 或 "Here comes he." 都對。
以 there 為句首而主詞是名詞時，則倒裝與不倒裝皆可。
因此 " There stood Steve." 或 " There Steve stood." 都對。
(4) 表次數的副詞 : 這種副詞只為強調，不倒裝也可以。
Twice within the 20th century were there world wars which killed tens of millions of people.
Often have we heard that more and more people lost their jobs.
Many a time did the kind old woman give food to the beggars. ( 回 頁 首 )
On Sundays we are allowed to go shopping. Apparently the boy did not do his homework.
At twelve all the workers stop working and have their lunch.
Luckily the poor worker won a big prize in the lottery.
II. 複合句 : (1) 肯定句 + and + 主詞 + 助動詞 , too. → 肯定句 + and + so + 助動詞 + 主詞 .
(2) 否定句 + and + 主詞 + 助動詞 + not, either. → 否定句 + and + nor / neither + 助動詞 + 主詞 .
兩否定句的主詞同屬一個人，則只能用 nor ，不能用 neither。主詞不同人，則 nor, neither 都可用。
He works hard and you do, too. → He works hard and so do you.
Edward doesn't drink, nor does he smoke. Mia cannot swim, nor can she play baseball.
I am not good at chess, nor do I wish to be.
He didn't work hard, and you didn't either. → He didn't work hard, and nor / neither did you.
You cannot fix the computer, nor / neither can my brother.
A: I like chocolate very much. B: So do I. ( 非複合句 )
III. 複雜句 ：
(1) 讓步子句 : Although / Though + S + V + n / adj. / adv., .... → N / Adj. / Adv. + as / though + S + V, ....
Although she is a girl, she is very brave. → Girl as she is, she is very brave. ( girl 不加冠詞)
Though he is poor, he still helps those who need help.→ Poor as he is , he still helps those who need help.
Although he worked hard, he couldn't support his family. → Hard as he worked, he couldn't support ....
Tired though we were, we kept climbing up to the top of the mountain. (不可用 although)
Dangerous though it was, he was confident that they would win.
(2) 假設語氣的倒裝 ：在文學体中常用。
If I were a billionaire, I could buy a big house.→ Were I a billionaire, I could buy a big house.
If I should miss the bus, I would go by taxi. → Should I miss the bus, I would go by taxi.
If I had studied harder last year, I might enter Taiwan University this year.
→ Had I studied harder last year, I might enter Taiwan University this year.
(3) 比較 和 名詞子句 有需要可倒裝 , as 在文學體中有時也用倒裝。
The parents know their children better than do the others.
Mr. Wang is a Buddhist, as are most of his friends.
The child watches TV every day as do most of his classmates.
Tell me who is that guy who is playing tennis there.
Do you know who is the boy running along the sidewalk?
Children in Taiwan learn much the same things as do those of the same age in Japan.
IV. 動詞在句首的倒裝 :
Try as he would, he could not finish the work in time. ← Though he would try, he could not ....
Come what may, I have made up my mind not to give up. ← Whatever may come, I have made up ....
Come what will, they will never yield. ← Whatever will come, they will never yield.
Report what you may, be faithful to the truth. ← Whatever you may report, be faithful to the truth.
Be he rich or poor, he shall be treated equally. ← Whether he is rich or poor, he shall be treated equally.
V. 受詞置於句首如果是否定的，則要倒裝，否則不用倒裝。如 I.(1) 所列的 none, nobody, nothing。
No advice did my teacher give me. (= My teacher gave me no advice.)
Nothing could we do in such a devastating forest fire. Nobody did I tell the secret.
Not a word did they say. ( They did not say a word.)
cf. Hardly a word is spoken. Hardly anybody was able to do it. 在此 hardly 是修飾 a word, anybody,
正如 No word was spoken. Nobody was able to do it . 一樣。
Democracy and freedom we believe in. Anne only he could love.= He could love Anne only.
The speech he gave yesterday, I think of as nonsense. Whether he will come or not, no one knows.
The history one can know, but the future no one can tell.
We eat what we can, and what we can't , we can.
(= We eat what can eat, and we can (裝罐)what we can't eat.)
VI. 補語在句首的倒裝 :
Happy is the country that has no history. (諺) Happy are the pure in heart, they will see God. (the Bible)
Hard is the way that leads to mastering any language, especially English.
A brave man is Steve who fought against the robber and caught him.
So shocked was the girl that she couldn't utter a word.
Interesting and instructive is the story book that you bought me last week.
VII. 分詞 ( participle ) :
Lying on the bench was a beautiful cat. Getting out of the car was her aunt.
Walking with the boy in the park was his uncle Mr. Wang.
Related to the increasing population are the problems of housing and food supply. ( 回 頁 首 )
Included in this plan will be a center for poor children.
VIII.直接敘述法 / 引句 (direct narration) : 直接引句後面，動詞 (reporting verbs) 如 say, ask, reply, answer,
deny, explain, remind, think, warn, etc. 在書寫文裡常用倒裝，不用 do 或 did。直接引句原是
上述動詞的受詞 ， 在此將其移到句首而產生倒裝 ，不倒裝也可以。
"We had a good time last week." said John. " I shall be 18 tomorrow." whispered Bill.
"Who's Mr. Wang?" shouted the man at the door. "What's going on there?" asked Henry.